National Eye Survey of Trinidad and Tobago (Nestt): Prevalence, Causes and Risk Factors for Presenting Vision Impairment in Adults Over 40 Years
Aim: To estimate the prevalence, causes and risk factors for presenting distance and near vision impairment (VI) in Trinidad and Tobago.
Methods: This is a national, population-based survey using multistage, cluster random sampling in 120 clusters with probability-proportionate-to-size methods. Stage 1 included standardised, community-based measurement of visual acuity. Stage 2 invited all 4263 people aged ≥40 years for comprehensive clinic-based assessment. The Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre graded fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography images independently.

Safety and Tolerability of Ranibizumab in Uni/bilateral Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration: 12-month Tweyes Study
Background: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with uni/bilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA)<2/10 and/or second eye affected, regardless of BCVA.
Methods: In this 12-month, prospective, multicentre, open-label, single arm, pragmatic interventional study, patients (N=941) aged ≥ 50 years were to receive ranibizumab as per approved label, monthly until maximum stable visual acuity (VA) was achieved (initially, three or more injections may be required). Thereafter, patients were to be monitored monthly for VA and treatment was to be resumed if VA was reduced due to disease activity.
Results: Of the 936 patients treated with ranibizumab at least once during the study, 823/113 were unilaterally/bilaterally (not simultaneously) treated . The mean (SD) number of ranibizumab injections during the study was 5.4 (2.9)/10.6 (5.0) injections in uni/bilaterally treated patients. Three systemic drug-related adverse events (AEs) (all serious, all in unilaterally treated patients) and 18 systemic AE of special interest (AESIs) (11 serious, 16/2 in unilaterally/bilaterally treated patients) occurred during the study. The annual incidence rate (AIR) (events/1000 person-years) for systemic drug-related AEs, considering a 15-day/30-day risk period, 11.0/8.5 for unilaterally treated patients. Considering the same risk period, the AIR (events/1000 person-years) for systemic AESIs for unilaterally treated patients was 22.1/19.9. Considering a 30-day risk period, the AIR (events/1000 treated eye-years) of ocular drug-related AEs was 23 and AESIs was 11.5.
Conclusions: The low incidence of AEs and AESIs demonstrated the good safety and tolerability of ranibizumab in unilaterally/bilaterally treated patients with nAMD in this real-world setting.

Factors Associated With Extended Remission in Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration on Pro Re Nata Treatment Protocol
Aim: To show the characteristics and outcomes of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) who had extended remission (ER) while on a pro re nata (PRN) treatment protocol.
Methods: This was a retrospective case–control study of a consecutive series of patients with nAMD treated with a PRN antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drug regimen. ER was defined as the absence of haemorrhage, intraretinal/subretinal fluid on optical coherence tomography and leakage on fluorescein angiography for 52 weeks after cessation of anti-VEGF therapy. Matching patients with nAMD who did not achieve ER were included as control group. Cox regression analysis was fitted to identify predictors of time to achieve ER and time to recurrence. A logistic regression analysis of baseline characteristics was used to identify predictors of achieving ER.
Results: Of 830 eyes treated with anti-VEGF monotherapy, 77 (9.2%) eyes achieved ER during a median follow-up of 236 weeks (range 70–525 weeks). Cox regression analysis showed that ER was achieved earlier in eyes with isolated intraretinal fluid (HR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.929 to 4.520; p=0.045) at presentation. Logistic regression analysis showed that type 3 choroidal neovascularisation (OR, 0.090; 95% CI 0.021 to 0.382; p=0.001), thinner choroid (OR, 0.993; 95% CI 0.988 to 0.998; p=0.004) and absence of macular atrophy (OR, 0.233; 95% CI 0.065 to 0.839; p=0.026) at baseline increased the likelihood of achieving ER.
Conclusion: ER is achievable in 9.2% of patients under PRN therapy for nAMD. At presentation with nAMD, anatomical features on retinal imaging may predict the likelihood of achieving ER and a shorter time to achieve ER.

Effects of Three Intravitreal Injections of Aflibercept on the Ocular Circulation in Eyes With Age-related Maculopathy
Aims: To investigate changes in ocular perfusion following three consecutive intravitreal injections with aflibercept for treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD).
Methods: The study included 20 eyes from 20 Caucasian patients with unilateral nAMD and 20 fellow eyes. All nAMD eyes were treated with standard intravitreal injection of aflibercept (IVA; 2 mg). Measurements of ocular perfusion at the optic nerve head (ONH) and the choroid were performed with laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). Measurements were conducted at baseline, 1 week after the first injection, at the time point of the second and third injection as well as 1 month after the third injection.
Results: In treated eyes, mean blur rate (the main output parameter of LSFG) in the ONH microvasculature and in the choroid was significantly reduced 1 week after the first IVA treatment. The effect persisted throughout the entire follow-up period (p<0.001). No change in ocular perfusion was observed in fellow eyes.
Conclusions: IVA for treatment of nAMD leads to a reduction in perfusion of the ONH and the choroid in the treated eye with no apparent effect on the fellow eye.



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