Enteral lipid supplementation with arachidonic acid (AA, 100 mg/kg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 50 mg/kg/day) in a ratio of 2:1 starting within three days of birth to premature infants born before 27 months reduces the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) to half as compared to infants without supplementation when treated till 40 weeks post-menstrual age.

These essential fatty acids allow the retina and retinal vessels to develop better, thus reducing the risk of ROP. Although the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular haemorrhage and mortality remained same in both the groups- one with lipid supplementation and another without supplementation but rate of sepsis and mainly severe ROP were far less with lipid supplementation.

For more information refer https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/945227

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